NÜKLEER GÜÇ ALAN BİLGİLERİ

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT INFORMATION

Derleyen : MSc. Mehmet Keçeci

05.12.2007

 

This section provides some of the tables and charts which are produced using PRIS data. All data are based on information provided by IAEA Member States through designated national correspondents or governmental organizations.

Power Reactor Information System – PRIS

IAEA

Güç Reaktörleri Bilgi Sistemi

The Agency has been collecting operating information from nuclear power plants in its member states since the late 1960s. The data have been provided voluntarily by the Member States in response to annual questionnaires either through official government authority channels or through designated national correspondents, usually in the operating organizations.

 

PRIS contains general and basic design information on power reactor in operation, under construction, planned or shut down, and operating experience data on nuclear power plants in the world. Operating experience data includes the energy produced (or lost due to power reductions) and the hours of operation of a reactor, a set of performance indicators (energy availability factor, load factor, operating factor, etc.) and one record for each significant reactor outage. Outage data are recorded in PRIS with codes for the main causes of outages and the main plant systems affected in equipment failure. A short description of the outage is also stored. The codification of the outages permits analysis to be carried out.

  •  

    Operational Reactors by Age
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

    Age Operational
    No. of Units Total MW(e)
    0 1 202
    1 2 1490
    2 4 3852
    3 5 4785
    4 2 1644
    5 6 5059
    6 3 2733
    7 6 3111
    8 4 2787
    9 4 3074
    10 3 3679
    11 6 7029
    12 4 3336
    13 5 4251
    14 9 8997
    15 6 4806
    16 4 3668
    17 10 10481
    18 11 10279
    19 14 13892
    20 22 22236
    21 24 24065
    22 32 31245
    23 33 31778
    24 21 16886
    25 18 15167
    26 22 19645
    27 20 15171
    28 7 6537
    29 14 13009
    30 14 10620
    31 16 12989
    32 11 8003
    33 23 15744
    34 14 8828
    35 10 5887
    36 12 5838
    37 5 2831
    38 7 2825
    39 1 217
    40 1 217
    Total: 436 368893

     

Under Construction (YAPIM AŞAMASINDA) Reactors by Country                                                                           

Under Construction
Country No. of Units Total MW(e)
ARGENTINA 1 692
BULGARIA 2 1906
CHINA 5 4220
FINLAND 1 1600
INDIA 6 2910
IRAN, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF 1 915
JAPAN 1 866
KOREA, REPUBLIC OF 1 960
PAKISTAN 1 300
ROMANIA 1 655
RUSSIAN FEDERATION 7 4585
UKRAINE 2 1900
Total: 31 24109

The following data is included in the totals            

  No. of Units Total MW(e)
TAIWAN, CHINA 2 2600

Operational & Long Term Shutdown Reactors by Country
                                                                                                                                                                      

Operational
Country No. of Units Total MW(e)
ARGENTINA 2 935
ARMENIA 1 376
BELGIUM 7 5824
BRAZIL 2 1795
BULGARIA 2 1906
CANADA 18 12589
CHINA 10 7572
CZECH REPUBLIC 6 3523
FINLAND 4 2696
FRANCE 59 63260
GERMANY 17 20339
HUNGARY 4 1755
INDIA 17 3779
JAPAN 55 47587
KOREA, REPUBLIC OF 20 17454
LITHUANIA, REPUBLIC OF 1 1185
MEXICO 2 1360
NETHERLANDS 1 482
PAKISTAN 2 425
ROMANIA 1 651
RUSSIAN FEDERATION 31 21743
SLOVAK REPUBLIC 5 2034
SLOVENIA 1 666
SOUTH AFRICA 2 1800
SPAIN 8 7450
SWEDEN 10 9048
SWITZERLAND 5 3220
UKRAINE 15 13107
UNITED KINGDOM 19 10965
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 103 98446
Total: 436 368893

                

The following data is included in the totals:
  No. of Units Total MW(e)
TAIWAN, CHINA 6 4921

                                  


Long Term Shutdown
Country No. of Units Total MW(e)
CANADA 4 2568
JAPAN 1 246
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 1 1065
Total: 6 3879

Operational & Long Term Shutdown Reactors by Type
                                              

Operational
Type No. of Units Total MW(e)
BWR 93 83488
FBR 2 690
GCR 18 9769
LWGR 16 11404
PHWR 43 21708
PWR 264 241834
Total: 436 368893

                                  

 
Long Term Shutdown
Type No. of Units Total MW(e)
BWR 1 1065
FBR 1 246
PHWR 4 2568
Total: 6 3879

Operational & Long Term Shutdown Reactors by Type
                                              

Operational
Type No. of Units Total MW(e)
BWR 93 83488
FBR 2 690
GCR 18 9769
LWGR 16 11404
PHWR 43 21708
PWR 264 241834
Total: 436 368893

                                  

 
Long Term Shutdown
Type No. of Units Total MW(e)
BWR 1 1065
FBR 1 246
PHWR 4 2568
Total: 6 3879

Shutdown Reactors by Country
                                                                                                          

Shutdown
Country No. of Units Total MW(e)
ARMENIA 1 376
BELGIUM 1 11
BULGARIA 4 1632
CANADA 3 478
FRANCE 11 3951
GERMANY 19 5944
ITALY 4 1423
JAPAN 3 320
KAZAKHSTAN 1 52
LITHUANIA, REPUBLIC OF 1 1185
NETHERLANDS 1 55
RUSSIAN FEDERATION 5 786
SLOVAK REPUBLIC 2 518
SPAIN 2 621
SWEDEN 3 1225
UKRAINE 4 3500
UNITED KINGDOM 26 3324
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 28 9764
Total: 119 35165

Shutdown Reactors by Type
                                                                       

Shutdown
Type No. of Units Total MW(e)
BWR 21 5416
FBR 6 1578
GCR 34 6147
HTGR 4 679
HWGCR 3 280
HWLWR 2 398
LWGR 8 4938
PHWR 5 307
PWR 33 15243
SGHWR 1 92
X 2 87
Total: 119 35165

Lifetime Energy Availability Factor
(Includes all operational & shutdown reactors from beginning of comercial operation up to 2005)                                                                                                                                                                  

Country No. of Reactors EAF (%)
ARGENTINA 2 79.8
ARMENIA 1 64.5
BELGIUM 7 84.9
BRAZIL 2 60.3
BULGARIA 2 63.8
CANADA 18 77.3
CHINA 9 81.1
CZECH REPUBLIC 6 80.7
FINLAND 4 90.7
FRANCE 59 77.1
GERMANY 17 83.4
HUNGARY 4 84.5
INDIA 15 61.8
JAPAN 53 73.5
KOREA, REPUBLIC OF 20 85.7
LITHUANIA, REPUBLIC OF 1 62.1
MEXICO 2 81.2
NETHERLANDS 1 83.8
PAKISTAN 2 38.5
ROMANIA 1 86.3
RUSSIAN FEDERATION 31 69.1
SLOVAK REPUBLIC 5 77.3
SLOVENIA 1 82.1
SOUTH AFRICA 2 69.8
SPAIN 8 85
SWEDEN 10 79.6
SWITZERLAND 5 85.7
UKRAINE 13 69.1
UNITED KINGDOM 19 72.1
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 103 77.5
World Wide 429 77

The following data from Taiwan, China is included in the totals          

No. of Reactors EAF (%)
6 81.3

Lifetime Unit Capability Factor
(Includes all operational & shutdown reactors from beginning of comercial operation up to 2005)

 

                                                                                                                                                                   

Country No. of Reactors UCF (%)
ARGENTINA 2 81
ARMENIA 1 66.9
BELGIUM 7 88.1
BRAZIL 2 66.9
BULGARIA 2 67.3
CANADA 18 78.4
CHINA 9 83.7
CZECH REPUBLIC 6 81.6
FINLAND 4 91.1
FRANCE 59 79.3
GERMANY 17 85.4
HUNGARY 4 84.7
INDIA 15 67.4
JAPAN 53 73.8
KOREA, REPUBLIC OF 20 86.1
LITHUANIA, REPUBLIC OF 1 73.2
MEXICO 2 82
NETHERLANDS 1 87.8
PAKISTAN 2 50.9
ROMANIA 1 87.5
RUSSIAN FEDERATION 31 71.6
SLOVAK REPUBLIC 5 80.2
SLOVENIA 1 83.8
SOUTH AFRICA 2 76.1
SPAIN 8 85.9
SWEDEN 10 81.4
SWITZERLAND 5 87.4
UKRAINE 13 70.9
UNITED KINGDOM 19 76
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 103 77.8
World Wide 429 78.3

The following data from Taiwan, China is included in the totals

          

No. of Reactors UCF (%)
6 82.6

World average factors by year
(Includes all operational reactors from 1995 up to 2005)

                                                                          

Year Energy Availability Factor (%) Unplanned Capability Loss Factor (%) Unit Capability Factor (%)
1995 77.159 5.67 78.733
1996 78.231 6.144 79.433
1997 77.664 5.98 78.61
1998 79.248 6.261 80.485
1999 81.018 4.482 82.509
2000 82.162 4.147 83.589
2001 83.518 3.556 85.021
2002 83.824 3.688 84.672
2003 80.797 5.815 81.759
2004 83.162 4.645 84.016
2005 82.835 3.894 84.018

 

Lifetime Unplanned Capability Loss Factor
(Includes all operational & shutdown reactors from beginning of comercial operation up to 2005)

                                                                                                                                                                   

Country No. of Reactors UCL (%)
ARGENTINA 2 6.4
ARMENIA 1 1.8
BELGIUM 7 2.8
BRAZIL 2 14.6
BULGARIA 2 2
CANADA 18 11.6
CHINA 9 3.4
CZECH REPUBLIC 6 2.9
FINLAND 4 1.9
FRANCE 59 7.1
GERMANY 17 3.8
HUNGARY 4 3.7
INDIA 15 16
JAPAN 53 4.2
KOREA, REPUBLIC OF 20 1.3
LITHUANIA, REPUBLIC OF 1 4.8
MEXICO 2 6.4
NETHERLANDS 1 2.7
PAKISTAN 2 20
ROMANIA 1 4.3
RUSSIAN FEDERATION 31 5.1
SLOVAK REPUBLIC 5 1.6
SLOVENIA 1 1.8
SOUTH AFRICA 2 7.1
SPAIN 8 3.7
SWEDEN 10 6.8
SWITZERLAND 5 1.6
UKRAINE 13 5.5
UNITED KINGDOM 19 8.7
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 103 7.9
World Wide 429 6.3

The following data from Taiwan, China is included in the totals

           

No. of Reactors UCL (%)
6 3.4

 

Last three years Energy Availability Factor
(Includes only operational reactors from 2003 up to 2005)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

Country 2003 2004 2005 2003-2005
No. of Reactors EAF (%) No. of Reactors EAF (%) No. of Reactors EAF (%) No. of Reactors EAF (%)
ARGENTINA 2 85.6 2 89.2 2 78 2 84.3
ARMENIA 1 60.6 1 64.2 1 76.3 1 67
BELGIUM 7 89.3 7 88.6 7 89.4 7 89.1
BRAZIL 2 75.4 2 72.1 2 70.1 2 72.5
BULGARIA 2 85.7 2 71.2 2 76.1 2 77.7
CANADA 16 79.2 17 81.4 18 83.1 18 81.3
CHINA 7 85.7 9 84.3 9 86.8 9 85.6
CZECH REPUBLIC 5 80 6 78.8 6 76.2 6 78.2
FINLAND 4 94.1 4 93.3 4 95.3 4 94.2
FRANCE 58 80.4 58 81.4 59 81.1 59 81
GERMANY 17 86.6 17 89.1 17 86.8 17 87.5
HUNGARY 4 69.5 4 72.7 4 84.7 4 75.6
INDIA 14 75.1 14 74.8 15 68.2 15 72.7
JAPAN 52 56.3 52 68.9 53 68.6 53 64.6
KOREA, REPUBLIC OF 18 90.2 19 87.7 20 91.2 20 89.7
LITHUANIA, REPUBLIC OF 1 71.5 1 48 1 89.3 1 69.6
MEXICO 2 89.9 2 79.1 2 92.3 2 87.1
NETHERLANDS 1 95.3 1 91.1 1 95.5 1 94
PAKISTAN 2 48.6 2 54.1 2 68.9 2 57.2
ROMANIA 1 78.7 1 89.1 1 89.3 1 85.7
RUSSIAN FEDERATION 30 75.5 30 72.6 31 73.3 31 73.8
SLOVAK REPUBLIC 5 81.2 5 81.5 5 82.5 5 81.7
SLOVENIA 1 86.2 1 89.9 1 98.3 1 91.4
SOUTH AFRICA 2 80.7 2 90.5 2 78.1 2 83.1
SPAIN 8 89.9 8 91.7 8 83.1 8 88.2
SWEDEN 10 82.3 10 91.5 10 87.7 10 87.1
SWITZERLAND 5 91.9 5 90.1 5 77.8 5 86.6
UKRAINE 13 77.9 13 81 13 81 13 79.9
UNITED KINGDOM 19 78.7 19 72.2 19 72.2 19 74.4
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 103 89.2 103 91.6 103 90.8 103 90.5
World Wide 418 80.8 423 83.2 429 82.8 429 82.3

The following data from Taiwan, China is included in the totals

                             

2003 2004 2005 2003-2005
No. of Reactors EAF (%) No. of Reactors EAF (%) No. of Reactors EAF (%) No. of Reactors EAF (%)
6 87.5 6 88.6 6 89.7 6 88.6

 

Last three years Unit Capability Factor
(Includes only operational reactors from 2003 up to 2005)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

Country 2003 2004 2005 2003-2005
No. of Reactors UCF (%) No. of Reactors UCF (%) No. of Reactors UCF (%) No. of Reactors UCF (%)
ARGENTINA 2 85.7 2 89.2 2 78 2 84.3
ARMENIA 1 63.4 1 70.3 1 76.3 1 70
BELGIUM 7 90.6 7 89.5 7 90.3 7 90.1
BRAZIL 2 85.6 2 72.1 2 70.1 2 75.9
BULGARIA 2 85.7 2 71.2 2 76.1 2 77.7
CANADA 16 80.5 17 82.2 18 83.5 18 82.2
CHINA 7 86.6 9 84.5 9 86.9 9 85.9
CZECH REPUBLIC 5 80.3 6 78.9 6 76.5 6 78.4
FINLAND 4 94.6 4 93.4 4 95.6 4 94.5
FRANCE 58 82.7 58 83 59 83.4 59 83
GERMANY 17 86.7 17 89.1 17 88 17 87.9
HUNGARY 4 71.3 4 72.7 4 84.7 4 76.2
INDIA 14 80.8 14 83.2 15 80.3 15 81.4
JAPAN 52 56.3 52 69 53 69.9 53 65.1
KOREA, REPUBLIC OF 18 90.4 19 87.7 20 91.6 20 89.9
LITHUANIA, REPUBLIC OF 1 74.6 1 48 1 89.3 1 70.6
MEXICO 2 90.2 2 79.9 2 92.9 2 87.6
NETHERLANDS 1 95.3 1 91.1 1 95.9 1 94.1
PAKISTAN 2 48.6 2 55.6 2 68.9 2 57.7
ROMANIA 1 86.7 1 89.4 1 89.6 1 88.6
RUSSIAN FEDERATION 30 78.1 30 75.5 31 77.9 31 77.2
SLOVAK REPUBLIC 5 83.4 5 83.4 5 84.4 5 83.7
SLOVENIA 1 91.6 1 91.4 1 98.5 1 93.8
SOUTH AFRICA 2 83.5 2 90.7 2 80.5 2 84.9
SPAIN 8 90.9 8 92.3 8 84.1 8 89.1
SWEDEN 10 83 10 92.4 10 88.6 10 88
SWITZERLAND 5 92.7 5 90.6 5 78.2 5 87.2
UKRAINE 13 79.5 13 85.1 13 81.9 13 82.2
UNITED KINGDOM 19 79.1 19 72.3 19 72.3 19 74.6
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 103 89.2 103 91.8 103 90.9 103 90.6
World Wide 418 81.8 423 84 429 84 429 83.3

The following data from Taiwan, China is included in the totals

                             

2003 2004 2005 2003-2005
No. of Reactors UCF (%) No. of Reactors UCF (%) No. of Reactors UCF (%) No. of Reactors UCF (%)
6 88.1 6 89.3 6 90.5 6 89.3

 

 

 

Last three years Unplanned Capability Loss Factor
(Includes only operational reactors from 2003 up to 2005)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

Country 2003 2004 2005 2003-2005
No. of Reactors UCL (%) No. of Reactors UCL (%) No. of Reactors UCL (%) No. of Reactors UCL (%)
ARGENTINA 2 5.5 2 3.5 2 2 2 3.7
ARMENIA 1 0 1 0.9 1 2.6 1 1.2
BELGIUM 7 1.3 7 1.7 7 1.3 7 1.4
BRAZIL 2 3.8 2 12.5 2 6.4 2 7.6
BULGARIA 2 0.1 2 0 2 0.3 2 0.1
CANADA 16 7.6 17 8.3 18 6.1 18 7.3
CHINA 7 2.8 9 3.8 9 0.6 9 2.3
CZECH REPUBLIC 5 1.8 6 3.7 6 8.3 6 4.8
FINLAND 4 0.8 4 1.2 4 0.2 4 0.7
FRANCE 58 5 58 5.3 59 4.9 59 5.1
GERMANY 17 5.1 17 4 17 3.2 17 4.1
HUNGARY 4 17.5 4 18.7 4 1.6 4 12.6
INDIA 14 4.8 14 4.3 15 2.9 15 4
JAPAN 52 19.8 52 11.7 53 6.8 53 12.7
KOREA, REPUBLIC OF 18 1.3 19 0.7 20 0.5 20 0.8
LITHUANIA, REPUBLIC OF 1 3.1 1 3.6 1 1.1 1 2.6
MEXICO 2 3 2 7.3 2 1.9 2 4.1
NETHERLANDS 1 1.4 1 2.3 1 1.6 1 1.8
PAKISTAN 2 17 2 14.5 2 3.5 2 11.7
ROMANIA 1 1 1 2.9 1 3.8 1 2.6
RUSSIAN FEDERATION 30 1.9 30 3 31 4.5 31 3.2
SLOVAK REPUBLIC 5 1.3 5 0.9 5 0.3 5 0.8
SLOVENIA 1 0.8 1 0.9 1 1.5 1 1
SOUTH AFRICA 2 2.7 2 1.6 2 3.9 2 2.8
SPAIN 8 2.5 8 2.8 8 6.2 8 3.8
SWEDEN 10 7.1 10 1.5 10 3.9 10 4.2
SWITZERLAND 5 0.1 5 0.6 5 14.4 5 5
UKRAINE 13 1.8 13 1 13 1.1 13 1.3
UNITED KINGDOM 19 11.6 19 17.1 19 12.4 19 13.7
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 103 2.9 103 1.6 103 1.8 103 2.1
World Wide 418 5.8 423 4.6 429 3.9 429 4.8

The following data from Taiwan, China is included in the totals

                             

2003 2004 2005 2003-2005
No. of Reactors UCL (%) No. of Reactors UCL (%) No. of Reactors UCL (%) No. of Reactors UCL (%)
6 2.3 6 0.9 6 1.3 6 1.5

 

World average factors by year
(Includes all operational reactors from 1995 up to 2005)

                                                                          

Year Energy Availability Factor (%) Unplanned Capability Loss Factor (%) Unit Capability Factor (%)
1995 77.159 5.67 78.733
1996 78.231 6.144 79.433
1997 77.664 5.98 78.61
1998 79.248 6.261 80.485
1999 81.018 4.482 82.509
2000 82.162 4.147 83.589
2001 83.518 3.556 85.021
2002 83.824 3.688 84.672
2003 80.797 5.815 81.759
2004 83.162 4.645 84.016
2005 82.835 3.894 84.018

 

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Energy Availability Factor (EAF)

DEFINITION

DATA ELEMENTS

CALCULATIONS

DATA QUALIFICATION REQUIREMENTS

CLARIFYING NOTES

The “energy availability factor” over a specified period, is the ratio of the energy that the available capacity could have produced during this period, to the energy that the reference unit power could have produced during the same period. The energy that the available capacity could have produced is equal to:

REG – PEL – UEL – XEL

Where:

 

  •  
    • REG = Reference energy generation(net) (MW(e).h) for the period
    • PEL = Total planned energy losses (MW(e).h)
    • UEL = Total unplanned energy loss (MW(e).h)
    • XEL = Total external energy losses (beyond the plant management control)

     

 
 

The following data are required to determine each unit”s value for this indicator:

 

  •  
    • Reference energy generation (net), expressed in units of megawatt-hours (electric)
    • Planned energy loss: the energy that was not produced during the period because of planned shutdowns or load reductions due to causes under the plant management control. Energy losses are considered to be planned if they are scheduled at least four weeks in advance, generally at the time when the annual overhaul, refueling, or maintenance program is established. Energy losses considered to be under plant management control are further defined in the clarifying notes. Planned energy loss is expressed in units of megawatt-hours.
    • Unplanned energy loss: the energy that was not produced during the period because of unplanned shutdowns, outage extensions, or load reductions due to causes under plant management control. Energy losses are considered to be unplanned if they are not scheduled at least four weeks in advance. Energy losses considered to be under plant management control are further defined in the clarifying notes. Unplanned energy loss is expressed in units of megawatt-hours.
    • External energy loss (energy loss due to causes external to the plant): the energy that was not produced during the period due to constraints external to the plant. These constraints are those considered to be beyond the control of the plant management. Energy losses considered to be beyond the plant management control are further defined in the clarifying notes.

     

 

The energy availability factor is determined for each period as shown below:

          

Value of a unit, EAF (%) = REG – PEL – UEL – XEL x 100
REG

 

Where:

  •  
    • REG = Reference energy generation(net) (MW(e).h) for the period
    • PEL = Total planned energy losses (MW(e).h)
    • UEL = Total unplanned energy loss (MW(e).h)
    • XEL = Total external energy losses (beyond the plant management control) (MW(e).h)

     

    Note: The total planned, unplanned energy losses and energy loss due to causes external to the plant for the period is the sum of the losses from all planned, unplanned and external events, respectively.

     

Data for new units is included in the calculation of annual values beginning January 1 of the first calendar year following commercial operation. Data for units in commercial operation at the end of the commercial operation period is included in the calculation of annual values ending December 31 of the last calendar year preceding shutdown.

  • The reference energy generation (net) is determined by multiplying the reference unit power (net) by the reference period hours.
  • Reference unit power (former maximum electrical capacity) is the maximum power capability of the unit under reference ambient conditions, i.e. the maximum power that could be maintained or is authorized to be maintained throughout a period of continuous operation, in practice 15 hours or longer. If a maximum power capability has been determined by formal test, the reference unit power is determined by correcting test results to reference ambient conditions. If a formal test has not been performed, the reference power should be based on design values, adjusted for reference ambient conditions. The reference unit power is expected to remain constant unless, following design changes, or a new permanent authorization, the management decides to amend the original value. The reference unit power may be gross or net. (It is recognized that the reference unit power may be set up by an authorized reference unit thermal power, and in these cases the net “reference” unit power corresponding to the authorized reference thermal power should be used for simplicity in the calculations.)
  • Reference unit power (net) (former maximum net electrical capacity) is the maximum power that can be supplied measured at the unit outlet terminals, i.e. after deducting the power taken by unit auxiliaries and the losses in the transformers that are considered integral parts of the unit.
  • Nuclear thermal power is the unit nuclear thermal power as derived from whatever is the most accurate heat balance measurement.
  • The reference ambient conditions are environmental conditions representative of the annual mean (or typical) conditions for a unit. It is expected that historical heat sink temperatures will be used to determine the reference ambient conditions. The same reference ambient conditions will generally apply for the life of the unit. Periodic review of these reference conditions is not required.
  • The reference period hours are the total number of hours in the pre-defined calendar time.
  • For units in power ascension at the end of the period, the clock hours from the beginning of the period or the first electrical production, whichever comes last, to the end of the period.
  • For units in commercial operation at the end of the period, the clock hours from the beginning of the period or of commercial operation, whichever comes last, to the end of the period or permanent shutdown, whichever comes first.
  • Planned energy losses (those scheduled at least four weeks in advance) caused by the following conditions should be included when computing the energy availability factor because they are considered to be under the control of plant management:
    •  
      • Refueling or planned maintenance outages
      • Planned outages or load reductions for testing, repair, or other plant equipment or personnel-related causes

       

    • Energy losses due to tests may be considered as planned if they are identified at least four weeks in advance and are part of a regular program, even if the precise time of the test is not decided four weeks in advance.
    • Unplanned energy losses caused by the following conditions should be included when computing the energy availability factor because they are considered to be under the control of plant management:
      •  
        • Unplanned maintenance outages
        • Unplanned outages or load reductions for testing, repair, or other plant equipment or personnel-related causes
        • Unplanned outage extensions
        • Unplanned outages or load reductions that are caused by, or prolonged by, regulatory actions taken as a result of plant equipment or personnel performance, or regulatory actions applied on a generic basis to all like plants

         

      • “External” Energy losses caused by the following conditions should be included when computing energy availability factor.
        •  
          • Environmental limitations (such as low cooling pond level, or water intake restrictions that could not be prevented by operator action)
          • Labor strikes (see clarifying note below)
          • Fuel coast downs
          • Seasonal variations in net dependable capacity due to cooling water temperature variations, low river or tidal waves
          • Restrictions on fuel supply as a result of external constraints, for example, disputes in fuel industries or by fuel rationing

           

        • The values of planned, unplanned or external power losses to be used in computing energy losses due to a particular event are the losses that would have occurred if the unit were operating at the reference power level at the time of the event. The power losses relative to the reference power may be determined by one of the following techniques:
          •  

            (1) Subtracting the actual power level during the event from the power level immediately prior to the event when the power was at or near the reference power level,

             

            (2) Computing the power level reduction that would have occurred with the unit at the reference power level, or

             

            (3) Using historical data from similar events occurring at the reference power level.

             

           For example, if a unit experiences a 10 MW power loss due to an equipment problem while operating at 75 % of the reference power, and it is determined from calculations or from similar events that have occurred at the reference power that the same equipment problem would have resulted in a 20 MW power loss at the reference power level, then 20 MW should be used when computing the energy loss.

        • For events involving planned, unplanned or external outages and start-up following these outages, the reference unit power should be used as the basis for computing power losses.
        • Outages or load reductions caused by labor strikes that occur while the unit is operating are normally included as external energy losses because these energy losses are not under the direct control of plant management. However, if during the strike the unit becomes incapable of starting or operating because of equipment failures, maintenance, overhauls, or other activities such as refueling, then the energy losses during the time the unit is inoperable are included as planned or unplanned. If a labor strike occurs during an outage, any outage extensions are included as energy losses (planned or unplanned) as long as the unit is incapable of being restarted because of equipment failures, maintenance, overhauls, or other activities such as refueling.
        • In general, changes in an outage or load reduction start date must be announced at least four weeks in advance to be considered as “planned”. However, if the grid dispatcher requests a change in the start date less than four weeks in advance, the outage or load reduction is considered to be planned.
           The same rule may be used if the change in the start date is decided by plant management, assuming this decision is due to all of the following reasons or circumstances:
           The unit is operating in a deregulated environment, and the management decision to modify the planned outage start date is solely to take advantage of economic situations to maximize, on a short term basis, the economic benefit coming from selling the plant electricity output.
           This economic benefit can be applied to the entire production system of the Utility, not only to the specific unit under consideration.
        •    
        • The unit is considered as able to run at maximum power during the four-week period prior to the initial planned outage start date.
        • Any forced or unplanned outage occurring during this four-week period (or before the new start date) shall not become the reason for putting forward the planned outage.
        • If a unit begins an outage or load reduction before the scheduled start date, the energy loss from the beginning of the outage or load reduction to the scheduled start date is an unplanned energy loss.

        • If an outage extends beyond the scheduled start-up date, either to complete originally scheduled work or to complete corrective maintenance work on equipment required for start-up, all energy losses associated with the outage extension should be considered as unplanned. However, outage extensions to complete discretionary work (i.e., preventive maintenance or modifications) not originally scheduled for completion during the outage should be considered as planned if the work is scheduled at least four weeks in advance. Extended outages can be reclassified from unplanned to planned once corrective maintenance activities required for start-up are completed if any remaining planned activities were scheduled at least four weeks in advance. This classification also applies to load reductions.

        • The scheduled start and end dates of planned outages and load reductions are those dates negotiated with and agreed to by the network and/or grid dispatcher. These dates may differ from dates shown on the detailed schedule of activities used at the unit for directing the outage.

        • Energy losses related to load reduction preceding a shutdown and load increases following the shutdown should be categorized as planned or unplanned depending on whether the shutdown is planned or unplanned. For example, energy losses while entering and recovering from a planned outage will be considered as planned losses. If an outage extension (unplanned outage) occurs at the end of a planned outage, the energy loss during recovery from the outage will still be considered as a planned loss because the shutdown was originally caused by a planned outage. Energy losses due to required tests following refueling are considered planned losses.

        • A unit that is in reserve shutdown will be considered as available if it can be restarted within the normal time required for unit start-up. If work on plant equipment is undertaken that would prevent a restart, the energy that potentially could have been produced while the plant was unavailable should be computed and used when determining the energy availability factor, even if the plant was not actually required to start-up during the period.

        • Energy Unavailability Factor (EUF) : Energy unavailability factor can be calculated from the relationship:  Where:  
           Note: Formerly EUF was defined as follows:
           Where:

        • EAF = Energy availability factor
        • New definition of EUF (valid since January 1 1991, covering data for the year 1990):
           

          EUF = PCLF + UCLF + XCLF

           Where:

        • PUF = Planned energy unavailability factor
        • UUF = Unplanned energy unavailability factor due to causes in the plant
        • XUF = Unplanned unavailability factor due to causes external to the plant
        •  
        • PCLF = Planned capability loss factor (%)
        • UCLF = Unplanned capability loss factor (%)
        • XCLF = External capability loss factor (%)
        • External Capability Loss Factor (XCLF) : External capability loss factor can be calculated from the relationship:  Where:  

        • Note: XCLF replaces the formerly used unplanned unavailability factor due to causes external to the plant (XUF)
           
        • UCF = Unit capability factor (%)
        • EAF = Energy availability factor (%)

 Unplanned Capability Loss Factor (UCL)

PURPOSE

DEFINITION

DATA ELEMENTS

CALCULATIONS

DATA QUALIFICATION REQUIREMENTS

CLARIFYING NOTES

The purpose of this indicator is to monitor industry progress in minimizing outage time and power reductions that result from unplanned equipment failures or other conditions. This indicator reflects the effectiveness of plant programs and practices in maintaining systems available for safe electrical generation.

Unplanned capability loss factor is defined as the ratio of the unplanned energy losses during a given period of time, to the reference energy generation, expressed as a percentage.

 

Unplanned energy loss is energy that was not produced during the period because of unplanned shutdowns, outage extensions, or unplanned load reductions due to causes under plant management control. Causes of energy losses are considered to be unplanned if they are not scheduled at least four weeks in advance. Causes considered to be under plant management control are further defined in the clarifying notes.

 

Reference energy generation is the energy that could be produced if the unit were operated continuously at full power under reference ambient conditions throughout the period. Reference ambient conditions are environmental conditions representative of the annual mean (or typical) ambient conditions for the unit

 
The following data is required to determine each unit”s value for this indicator:

  •  
    • Unplanned energy losses expressed in units of megawatt-hours (electric). The definition of unplanned energy losses is included as part of the Unit Capability Factor indicator description.
    • Reference energy generation, expressed in units of megawatt-hours (electric).

     

The unplanned capability loss factor is determined for each period as shown below:

           

Value for a unit, UCLF(%) = UEL x 100%
REG

 Where:

  •  
    •  
      • UEL = Total unplanned energy losses for the period
      • REG = Reference energy generation for the period

       

      Note: The total unplanned energy loss for the period is the sum of the losses from all unplanned events.

       

      • Unplanned energy loss: UEL = å(UPL x HRU)
         Where:
        •  
          • UPL = Unplanned power loss: the power decrease in megawatts due to an unplanned event
          • HRU = Hours operated at reduced power (or shutdown) due to the unplanned event

           

        • Value for the industry = Median of the unit values
        • Unplanned capability loss factors for individual units will be presented for a three-year period to maintain consistency with the three year Unit Capability Factor.

         An example of the data collected for this performance indicator and a sample calculation are provided in Attachment A to the Unit Capability Factor indicator description.

 
 
 

Data for new units is included in the calculation of industry values beginning January 1 of the first calendar year following commercial operation.

 

 
 
 

  •  
    • The reference energy generation is determined by multiplying the reference unit power by the period hours.
    • The reference unit power is the maximum power capability of the unit under reference ambient conditions. If a maximum power capability has been determined by formal test, the reference unit power is determined by correcting test results to reference ambient conditions. If a formal test has not been performed, the reference power should be based on design values, adjusted for reference ambient conditions. The reference unit power is expected to remain constant unless design changes that affect the capacity are made to the unit.
    • The reference ambient conditions are environmental conditions representative of the annual mean (or typical) ambient conditions for a unit. It is expected that historical heat sink temperatures will be used to determine the reference ambient conditions. The same reference ambient conditions will generally apply for the life of the unit. Periodic review of these reference conditions is not required.
    • Unplanned energy losses caused by the following conditions should be included when computing the unplanned capability loss factor because they are considered to be under the control of plant management:
      •    
        • Unplanned maintenance outages
        • Unplanned outages or load reductions for testing, repair, or other plant equipment or personnel-related causes
        • Unplanned outage extensions
        • Unplanned outages or load reductions that are caused by or prolonged by regulatory actions taken as a result of plant equipment or personnel performance, or regulatory actions applied on a generic basis to all like plants
      • Unplanned energy losses due to the following causes should not be included when computing the unplanned capability loss factor because these losses are not considered to be under the control of plant management:
        •    
          • Grid instability or failure
          • Lack of demand (reserve shutdown, economic shutdown, or load–following)
          • Environmental limitations (such as low cooling pond level, water intake restrictions , earthquake or deluges that could not be prevented by operator action)
          • Labor strikes (see clarifying note below)
          • Fuel coast downs
          • Seasonal variations in gross dependable capacity due to cooling water temperature variations
        • The values of planned or unplanned power losses to be used in computing energy losses due to a particular event are the losses that would have occurred if the unit were operating at the reference power level at the time of the event. The power losses relative to the reference power may be determined by one of the following techniques:  

          For example, if a unit experiences a 10 MW power loss due to an equipment problem while operating at 75 % of the reference power, and it is determined from calculations or from similar events that have occurred at the reference power that the same equipment problem would have resulted in a 20 MW power loss at the reference power level, then 20 MW should be used when computing the energy loss.

           

          •  

            (1) Subtracting the actual power level during the event from the power level immediately prior to the event when the power was at or near the reference power level,

             

            (2) Computing the power level reduction that would have occurred with the unit at the reference power level, or

             

            (3) Using historical data from similar events occurring at the reference power level.

             

        • For events involving unplanned outages and start-up following these outages, the reference unit power should be used as the basis for computing power losses.
        • If energy losses during an event occur due to a combination of causes under management control and causes outside of management control, the portion of the total losses that are unplanned and are under management control should be identified and used when computing the unplanned capability loss factor.
        • Outages or load reductions caused by labor strikes that occur while the unit is operating are normally not included as unplanned energy losses because these energy losses are not under the direct control of plant management. However, if during the strike the unit becomes incapable of starting or operating because of equipment failures, maintenance, overhauls, or other activities such as refueling, then the energy losses during the time the unit is inoperable are included. If a labor strike occurs during an outage, any outage extensions are included as energy losses as long as the unit is incapable of being restarted because of equipment failures, maintenance, overhauls, or other activities such as refueling.
        • In general, changes in an outage or load reduction start date must be announced at least four weeks in advance to be considered as “planned.” However, if the grid dispatcher requests a change in the start date less than four weeks in advance, the outage or load reduction is considered to be planned.

          The same rule may be used if the change in the start date is decided by plant management, assuming this decision is due to all of the following reasons or circumstances:

           

          The unit is operating in a deregulated environment, and the management decision to modify the planned outage start date is solely to take advantage of economic situations to maximize, on a short term basis, the economic benefit coming from selling the plant electricity output.

           

          This economic benefit can be applied to the entire production system of the Utility, not only to the specific unit under consideration.

           

    •  
    • The unit is considered as able to run at maximum power during the four-week period prior to the initial planned outage start date.

    • Any forced or unplanned outage occurring during this four-week period (or before the new start date) shall not become the reason for putting forward the planned outage.

    • If a unit begins an outage or load reduction before the scheduled start date, the energy loss from the beginning of the outage or load reduction to the scheduled start date is an unplanned energy loss.

    • If an outage extends beyond the scheduled start-up date, either to complete originally scheduled work or to complete corrective maintenance work on equipment required for start-up, all energy losses associated with the outage extension should be considered as unplanned. However, outage extensions to complete discretionary work (i.e., preventive maintenance and modifications) not originally scheduled for completion during the outage should be considered as planned if the work is scheduled at least four weeks in advance. Extended outages can be reclassified from unplanned to planned once corrective maintenance activities required for start-up are completed if any remaining planned activities were scheduled at least four weeks in advance. This clarification also applies to load reductions.

    • The scheduled start and end dates of planned outages and load reductions are those dates negotiated with and agreed to by the network and/or grid dispatcher. These dates may differ from dates shown on the detailed schedule of activities used at the unit for directing the outage.

    • Energy losses that occur while entering and recovering from an unplanned outage will be considered as unplanned losses. If an outage extension (unplanned outage) occurs at the end of a planned outage, the energy loss during recovery from the outage will still be considered as a planned loss because the shutdown was originally caused by a planned outage. Energy losses due to required tests following refueling are considered planned losses.

    • Either net or gross energy may be used; however, consistency must be maintained for all energy terms. The use of gross energy is more meaningful in certain situations. For example, it is less confusing for multi-unit stations that may power the station electrical loads from one unit.

    • Planned Capability Loss Factor (PCLF) :The planned capability loss factor can be calculated from the relationship:  

    •  UCF + UCLF + PCLF = 100% Over a specific time period
       Where:
       
       

      Note: PCLF Replaces the formerly used planned energy unavailability factor (PUF)

       

    • UCF = Unit capability factor (%)

    • UCLF = Unplanned capability loss factor (%)

    •  

    • Unit Capability Factor (UCF)

 

PURPOSE

DEFINITION

DATA ELEMENTS

CALCULATIONS

DATA QUALIFICATION REQUIREMENTS

CLARIFYING NOTES

 
 
 

The purpose of this indicator is to monitor progress in attaining high unit and industry energy production reliability. This indicator reflects effectiveness of plant programs and practices in maximizing available electrical generation, and provides an overall indication of how well plants are operated and maintained.

 

  • Unit capability factor is defined as the ratio of the available energy generation over a given time period to the reference energy generation over the same time period, expressed as a percentage. Both of these energy generation terms are determined relative to reference ambient conditions.
  • Available energy generation is the energy that could have been produced under reference ambient conditions considering only limitations within control of plant management, i.e., plant equipment and personnel performance, and work control.
  • Reference energy generation is the energy that could be produced if the unit were operated continuously at full power under reference ambient conditions.
  • Reference ambient conditions are environmental conditions representative of the annual mean (or typical) ambient conditions for the unit.
 
 
The following data are required to determine each unit”s value for this indicator:

  •  
    • Reference energy generation, expressed in units of megawatt-hours (electric).
    • Planned energy loss: the energy that was not produced during the period because of planned shutdowns or load reductions due to causes under plant management control. Energy losses are considered planned if they are scheduled at least four weeks in advance. Energy losses considered to be under plant management control are further defined in the clarifying notes. Planned energy loss is expressed in units of megawatt-hours.
    • Unplanned energy loss: the energy that was not produced during the period because of unplanned shutdowns, outage extensions, or load reductions due to causes under plant management control. Energy losses are considered to be unplanned if they are not scheduled at least four weeks in advance. Energy losses considered to be under plant management control are further defined in the clarifying notes. Unplanned energy loss is expressed in units of megawatt-hours.

     

 
 
 

The unit capability factor is determined for each period as shown below:

            

Value of a unit, UCF (%) = (REG – PEL – UEL) x 100 %
REG

 Where:

  •  
    •  
      • REG = Reference energy generation for the period
      • PEL = Total planned energy losses for the period
      • UEL = Total unplanned energy losses for the period

       

      • Planned energy loss: PEL = å(PPL x HRP)
        • Where:  
          • PPL = Planned power loss: the power decrease in megawatts due to a planned event
          • HRP = Hours operated at reduced power (or shutdown) due to the planned event

            Note: The total planned energy loss for the period is the sum of the losses from all planned events.

             

        • Unplanned energy loss: UEL = å(UPL x HRU)  
          • Where:  
      • UPL = Unplanned power loss: the power decrease in megawatts due to an unplanned event
      • HRU = Hours operated at reduced power (or shutdown) due to the unplanned event

        Note: The total unplanned energy loss for the period is the sum of the losses from all unplanned events.

         

      • Value for the industry = Median of the unit values
         In general, unit capability factors for individual units will be presented for a three-year period to minimize the impact of annual variations due to refueling and planned maintenance outages. An example of the data collected for this performance indicator and a sample calculation are provided in Attachment A.
 

Data for new units is included in the calculation of industry values beginning January 1 of the first calendar year following commercial operation.

 
 

  • The reference energy generation is determined by multiplying the reference unit power by the period hours.
  • The reference unit power is the maximum power capability of the unit under reference ambient conditions. If a maximum power capability has been determined by formal test, the reference unit power is determined by correcting test results to reference ambient conditions. If a formal test has not been performed, the reference power should be based on design values, adjusted for reference ambient conditions. The reference unit power is expected to remain constant unless design changes that affect the capacity are made to the unit.
  • The reference ambient conditions are environmental conditions representative of the annual mean (or typical) conditions for a unit. It is expected that historical heat sink temperatures will be used to determine the reference ambient conditions. The same reference ambient conditions will generally apply for the life of the unit. Periodic review of these reference conditions is not required.
  • Planned energy losses(those scheduled at least four weeks in advance) caused by the following conditions should be included when computing the unit capability factor because they are considered to be under the control of plant management:
    •    
      • Refueling or planned maintenance outages
      • Planned outages or load reductions for testing, repair, or other plant equipment or personnel-related causes
    • Energy losses due to tests may be considered as planned if they are identified at least four weeks in advance and are part of a regular program, even if the precise time of the test is not decided four weeks in advance.
    • Unplanned energy lossescaused by the following conditions should be included when computing the unit capability factor because they are considered to be under the control of plant management:
      •    
        • Unplanned maintenance outages
        • Unplanned outages or load reductions for testing, repair, or other plant equipment or personnel-related causes
        • Unplanned outage extensions
        • Unplanned outages or load reductions that are caused by, or prolonged by, regulatory actions taken as a result of plant equipment or personnel performance, or regulatory actions applied on a generic basis to all like plants
      • Energy lossesdue to the following causes should not be considered when computing the unit capability factor because these losses are not considered to be under the control of plant management:
        •    
    • Grid instability or failure

    • Lack of demand (reserve shutdown, economic shutdown, or load-following)

    • Environmental limitations (such as low cooling pond level, water intake restrictions, earthquake or deluges that could not be prevented by operator action)

    • Labor strikes (see clarifying note below)

    • Fuel coast downs

    • Seasonal variations in gross dependable capacity due to cooling water temperature variations

    • The values of planned or unplanned power lossesto be used in computing energy losses due to a particular event are the losses that would have occurred if the unit were operating at the reference power level at the time of the event. The power losses relative to the reference power may be determined by one of the following techniques:  For example, if a unit experiences a 10 MW power loss due to an equipment problem while operating at 75 % of the reference power, and it is determined from calculations or from similar events that have occurred at the reference power that the same equipment problem would have resulted in a 20 MW power loss at the reference power level, then 20 MW should be used when computing the energy loss.

    • (1) Subtracting the actual power level during the event from the power level immediately prior to the event when the power was at or near the reference power level,
       

      (2) Computing the power level reduction that would have occurred with the unit at the reference power level, or

       

      (3) Using historical data from similar events occurring at the reference power level.

       

  • For events involving planned or unplanned outages and start-up following these outages, the reference unit power should be used as the basis for computing power losses.

  • If energy losses during an event occur due to a combination of causes under management control and causes outside of management control, the portion of the total losses caused by factors under management control should be identified and included when computing the unit capability factor.

  • Outages or load reductions caused by labor strikes that occur while the unit is operating are normally not included as planned or unplanned energy losses because these energy losses are not under the direct control of plant management. However, if during the strike the unit becomes incapable of starting or operating because of equipment failures, maintenance, overhauls, or other activities such as refueling, then the energy losses during the time the unit is inoperable are included. If a labor strike occurs during an outage, any outage extensions are included as energy losses as long as the unit is incapable of being restarted because of equipment failures, maintenance, overhauls, or other activities such as refueling.

    • In general, changes in an outage or load reduction start date must be announced at least four weeks in advance to be considered as “planned.” However, if the grid dispatcher requests a change in the start date less than four weeks in advance, the outage or load reduction is considered to be planned.

      The same rule may be used if the change in the start date is decided by plant management, assuming this decision is due to all of the following reasons or circumstances:

       

      The unit is operating in a deregulated environment, and the management decision to modify the planned outage start date is solely to take advantage of economic situations to maximize, on a short term basis, the economic benefit coming from selling the plant electricity output.

       

      This economic benefit can be applied to the entire production system of the Utility, not only to the specific unit under consideration.

       

      •    
        • The unit is considered as able to run at maximum power during the four-week period prior to the initial planned outage start date.
        • Any forced or unplanned outage occurring during this four-week period (or before the new start date) shall not become the reason for putting forward the planned outage.
      • If a unit begins an outage or load reduction before the scheduled start date, the energy loss from the beginning of the outage or load reduction to the scheduled start date is an unplanned energy loss.
      • If an outage extends beyond the scheduled start-up date, either to complete originally scheduled work or to complete corrective maintenance work on equipment required for start-up, all energy losses associated with the outage extension should be considered as unplanned. However, outage extensions to complete discretionary work (i.e., preventive maintenance or modifications) not originally scheduled for completion during the outage should be considered as planned if the work is scheduled at least four weeks in advance. Extended outages can be reclassified from unplanned to planned once corrective maintenance activities required for start-up are completed if any remaining planned activities were scheduled at least four weeks in advance. This clarification also applies to load reductions.
      • The scheduled start and end dates of planned outages and load reductions are those dates negotiated with and agreed to by the network and/or grid dispatcher. These dates may differ from dates shown on the detailed schedule of activities used at the unit for directing the outage.
      • Energy losses related to load reduction preceding a shutdown and load increases following the shutdown should be categorized as planned or unplanned depending on whether the shutdown is planned or unplanned. For example, energy losses while entering and recovering from a planned outage will be considered as planned losses. If an outage extension (unplanned outage) occurs at the end of a planned outage, the energy loss during recovery from the outage will still be considered as a planned loss because the shutdown was originally caused by a planned outage (see Attachment A, time period 5 – 6 for an example of this situation.) Energy losses due to required tests following refueling are considered planned losses.
      • A unit that is in reserve shutdown will be considered as available if it can be restarted within the normal time required for unit start-up. If work on plant equipment is undertaken that would prevent a restart, the energy that potentially could have been produced while the plant was unavailable should be computed and used when determining the unit capability factor, even if the plant was not actually required to start-up during the period.
      • Either net or gross energy may be used; however, consistency must be maintained for all energy terms. The use of gross energy is more meaningful in certain situations. For example, it is less confusing for multi-unit stations that may power the station electrical loads from one unit.
      • As a point of interest, the sum of unit capability factor, unplanned capability loss factor, and planned capability loss factor equals 100 percent over a specific time period. Planned capability loss factor can be calculated from this relationship.

 

UCF – ATTACHMENT A
 

Example Indicator Calculation

Initial Conditions:

Energy Loss Examples:

Calculations for Unit Capability Factor

Calculations for Unplanned Capability Loss Factor*

Point-to-point power level explanations:
 

The following examples and the accompanying power history plot are provided to illustrate methods used in calculating the unit capability factor and the unplanned capability loss factor for a plant under a variety of common situations. The time periods referenced in the example refer to points labeled on the power history plot.

  •  
    • Reference unit power: 985 MW(e).

      It is assumed that this unit has a maximum power output of 1 000 MW(e) under optimum ambient conditions (determined by a formal test). Correction of test results to reference ambient conditions resulted in the reference capacity value of 985 MW(e).

       

    • Time period being considered: one year (8 760 hours)
    • Reference energy generation for the period (REG):

      (985 MW(e)) x (8 760 hours) = 8 628 600 MW(e).h

       

     

                                                          

Time Period Description
1 – 2 Power reduction of 100 MW(e) for 12 hours due to circulating water pump failure. The unit was operating at reduced power due to a load following at the time of the pump failure. The power reduction caused by this failure would have been 201 MW(e) if the failure had occurred at the reference power level.
UEL = 201 x 12 = 2 412 MW(e).h Unplanned
2 – 3 Reduced power operation due to ambient conditions and fuel coast down. The lost energy generation is not used in calculations.
3 – 4 Planned refueling outage. Scheduled length was 45 days (1 080 hours). The outage begins on the scheduled date.
PEL = 985 x 1 080 = 1 063 800 MW(e).h Planned
4 – 5 Outage extension of 10 days (240 hours) beyond scheduled length to complete all work scheduled for the outage.
UEL = 985 x 240 = 236 400 MW(e).h Unplanned
5 – 6 Power ramp-up following outage. Average power level of 495 MW(e) for three days (72 hours).
PEL = (985 – 495) x 72 = 35 280 MW(e).h Planned
6 – 7 Operation above reference unit capacity due to very cold cooling water. The additional energy generation is not used in calculations.
7 – 8 Shutdown for 32 hours due to reactor scram caused by personnel error.
UEL = 985 x 32 = 31 520 MW(e).h Unplanned
8 – 9 Power ramp-up following the scram. Average power level of 490 MW(e) for 8 hours.
9 – 10 Operation below reference unit capacity due to environmental limitations only. The lost energy generation is not used in calculations.

 

 
                                             

  Time Period Energy Loss
 MW(e).h
Total planned energy loss (PEL) 3 – 4 1 063 800
5 – 6 35 280
  1 099 080
 
Total unplanned energy loss (UEL) 1 – 2 2 412
4 – 5 2236 400
7 – 8 31 520
8 – 9 3 960
  274 292

 
                       

Unit Capability Factor (UCF) = (REG – PEL – UEL) x 100%
REG
= (8 628 600 – 1 099 080 – 274 292) x 100%
8 628 600
= 84.1%

 

 
 
                       

Unplanned Capability Loss Factor (UCL) = UEL x 100%
REG
= 274 292 x 100%
8 628 600
= 3.2%

 

* This calculation is provided for use with the Unplanned Capability Loss Factor detailed description.

 

 
                            

0 – 1 Reduced power due to load following
1 – 2 Reduced power due to equipment failure
2 – 3 Reduced power due to ambient conditions and fuel coast-down
3 – 6 Unit shutdown (outage) and subsequent ramp-up
6 – 7 Increased power due to very cold water
7 – 9 Unit shutdown (operator error) and subsequent ramp-up
9 – 10 Reduced power due to environmental limitations not under management control